Get to know Chandrayaan 3, the Indian spacecraft that successfully landed on the moon

TIME.CO, Jakarta – An Indian spaceship, Chandrayaan successfully landed at the south pole of the moon on Wednesday, August 23, 2023. The space mission is seen as important for the exploration of the satellite side of the earth which has never been explored before. In addition, it was required to demonstrate India’s position as a country capable of spaceflight.

“India is on the moon,” the head of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) said on Wednesday, Aug. 23, 2023.

Chandrayaan-3 profile

Reported by, Chandrayaan-3 is a successor mission of Chandrayaan-2 to carry out landings and explorations on the lunar surface. Chandrayaan-3 was launched by Rocket Launch Vehicle Mark-3 (LVM3) at Satish Dhawan Space Center (SDSC) SHAR, Sriharikota.

Chandrayaan-3 consists of a Lander (LM) configuration, a propulsion or propulsion module (PM) and a Rover. The purpose of Indian spaceflight is to develop and demonstrate new technologies in interplanetary missions. The sent spacecraft will carry out the Chandra Surface Thermophysical Experiment (ChaSTE) mission to measure thermal conductivity and temperature.

Additionally, Chandrayaan-3 was flown to measure seismicity around the landing site, i.e. the Moon, using the Lunar Seismic Activity Instrument (ILSA). There is also a Langmuir (LP) probe that works to estimate plasma density, as well as a NASA-hosted passive laser retroreflector array for laser accessibility studies on the Moon.

The Chandrayaan-3 lander is approximately 2 meters tall and weighs more than 1,700 kilograms or the equivalent of an SUV. The Indian spacecraft is designed to deploy a smaller rover, weighing 26 kilograms.

Pada Chandrayaan-3 technology

To achieve this, several advanced technologies have been installed on the Chandrayaan-3 lander, including:

– Laser and Radio Frequency (RF) Altimeter: A device that measures the height of a point from the surface similar to radar technology.

– Laser Doppler Velocimeter and Horizontal Velocity Lander Camera: Velocity measuring tools that can calculate the direction of movement of objects.

– Inertia and accelerometers based on laser gyroscopes: devices for measuring acceleration.

– Propulsion system, composed of Throttleable Liquid and Throttleable 800 N electronic controls.

– Powered descent trajectory as a navigation, guidance and control (NGC) system.

– Camera for detecting and avoiding dangers of the lander and processing algorithm for detecting dangers.


– Landing mechanism (landing leg mechanism).

To demonstrate this advanced technology, a variety of ground tests were conducted, including:

– Integrated Cold Test: Observe navigation and sensor performance using a helicopter as a test rig.

– Integrated heat condition test: determine the performance of sensors, actuators and NGCs using the tower crane as a means of testing.

– Test the performance of the landing leg mechanism in a lunar simulation site to find out how to land under different conditions.

Tujuan Misi Chandrayaan-3

Reported by Reuters, Chandrayaan-3 was launched in the south polar part of the Moon with icy or icy areas. The mission is carried out to research the water content on the moon which can be a source of oxygen, water and fuel for the future or a new place to live other than the earth.

If successful, Chandrayaan-3 should survive for two weeks to carry out a series of experiments, including a spectrometric analysis of the mineral composition of the lunar surface.

Heavy terrain is one of the obstacles to landing at the Moon’s south pole that Chandrayaan-3 faces. ISRO scientists say they have made changes so that the chances of success are higher.

The changes in question are expanding the landing zone, fitting the Lander with more fuel (solar panels), and designing the Rover to be more robust against crashes.


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