TIME.CO, Jakarta – In the morning, Tuesday 15 August 2023, Jakarta air pollution back to the top of the world champion. Jakarta had 116.7 µg/m3 of pollution or fell into the unhealthy category as per IQ Air’s monitoring on Tuesday, August 15, 2023 at 08:00 AM. Major world cities listed in the same category are Dubai (United Arab Emirates), Doha (Qatar) and Dhaka (Bangladesh)
Compared to nearby cities of Jabodetabek, we can see Bekasi (83.3 µg/m3 ), Depok (167 µg/m3 ) and Tangerang (109 µg/m3 ). All three are included in the unhealthy category. Only Bogor (36.7 µg/m3) is included in the unhealthy category for sensitive groups.
In Surabaya it was recorded (111.8 µg/m3) and in Bandung (69.2 µg/m3), also in the unhealthy category. Denpasar with 21 µg/m3 is in the moderate category and Bontang in East Kalimantan is in the good category with 9.1 µg/m3.
PM2.5 are solid air polluting particles measuring less than 2.5 micrometres or 36 times smaller than the diameter of a grain of sand. According to WHO standards, measurements are in µg/m3 units. The safe category is in the range of 0 – 12 µg/m3, moderate (12.1 – 35.4 µg/m3), unhealthy for sensitive groups (35.5 – 55.4 µg/m3), unhealthy (55, 5 – 150.4 µg/m3), very unhealthy (150.5 – 250.4 µg/m3) and toxic (>250.4 µg/m3).
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Short term solution
As for the situation in Jabodetabek, the report of the Minister of Environment and Forestry on “Improving Air Quality in Jabodetabek” makes several suggestions, even in the short term. This was communicated by the Ministry of Environment and Forestry or KLHK in a restricted cabinet meeting in Jakarta, on August 12, 2023
1. Improve vehicle inspection and maintenance programs
Emissions testing is a way to force vehicle owners to carry out vehicle inspections and maintenance. In accordance with the study recommendations above, this emissions test is an easy short-term step and the results can be felt immediately. Steps that need to be done:
A. The National Police Chief has been asked to support the implementation of emissions test raids to see compliance with motor vehicle emissions tests. Emissions test raids start with a socialization period, implemented on some road sections, if the community can accept this then it will be carried out nationwide
B. All Ministries/Institutions/Local Governments are required to enforce emissions testing requirements for all motor vehicles entering Ministries/Institutions and Local Government office facilities
C. Include emission test pass requirements for renewal of vehicle number certificates (STNK) and vehicle tax payment
D. In accordance with the mandate of PP 22/2021 on the implementation of environmental protection and management, it is necessary to immediately implement an environmental pollution tax.
• The Ministry of the Interior must establish the amount of the pollution tax coefficient in determining the motor vehicle tax.
• The vehicle tax coefficient has been prepared by the Ministry of the Environment and Forests and by the National Agency for Research and Innovation
• At present, a public test is still required to determine the amount of the fee for vehicles that pass the quality standard
And. Motor vehicles that fail the emissions test are subject to an environmental pollution levy, if they fail the emissions test twice, the vehicle will be written off (no longer roadworthy).
2. Tightening of motor vehicle emission standards to Euro 4
• At this time, the Regulation of the Minister of the Environment and Forests number P.20 of 2017 concerning the quality standards for the new types of emissions from motor vehicles has been issued.
• Revision of Permen LH number 5 of 2006 concerning quality standards for emissions of older type motor vehicles, ie vehicles that have been in operation for more than 3 years since use, is ongoing. The revision is intended to strengthen emissions quality standards for older motor vehicles and regulate emissions testing such as official emissions testing institutes and emissions testing procedures. Currently the phase of harmonization at the Ministry of Law and Human Rights
• Pertamina is required to ensure the availability and distribution of Euro 4 equivalent fuel throughout Indonesia, especially DKI Jakarta and Bodetabek area
3. Carry out the standardization of environmental quality monitoring tools to be transmitted to the public The head of the National Standardization Agency (BSN) will immediately establish the Indonesian National Standard (SNI) of an automatic, continuous and real-time monitoring system of the air quality. Ensure that environmental quality information released to the public meets standards and is valid.
4. Clean Air Action Organization of Jabodetabek KLHK, DKI Jakarta Province, West Java Province, Banten Province, Bogor City, Bogor Regency, Depok City, Bekasi City, Bekasi Regency, Tangerang City, Tangerang Regency and South Tangerang City must coordinate to carry out air pollution control in Jabodetabek:
1) Planning for the implementation of the Sejabodetabek Emission Test including the availability of Testing Workshops, mechanisms for managing the database of test results, training of workshop personnel and certification of workshop personnel
2) Preparation of air quality management and protection plan for Jabodetabek area
3) Inventory – integrated pollutant sources
4) Implementation of an integrated action plan
5. Accelerate the use of electric vehicles and convert vehicles from fossil fuels to electric energy
• Operational Service Electric Vehicle Procurement (KDO).
• Procurement of electric public vehicles such as Transjakarta electric buses in Jabodetabek
6. Ban on burning garbage open
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